Annual Review of Hydrocephalus: Volume 6 1988

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Cerebrospinal fluid transport: a lymphatic perspective. News Physiol Sci ; Does neonatal cerebrospinal fluid absorption occur via arachnoid projections or extracranial lymphatics? Contribution of extracranial lymphatics and arachnoid villi to the clearance of a CSF tracer in the rat. Intracranial pressure accommodation is impaired by blocking pathways leading to extracranial lymphatics. Ex vivo model of cerebrospinal fluid outflow across human arachnoid granulations.

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Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; Effect of intravascular-to- extravascular water exchange on the determination of blood-to-tissue transfer constant by magnetic resonance imaging. Magn Reson Med ; Expression of the water-channel protein aquaporin-4 in the H-Tx rat: possible compensatory role in spontaneously arrested hydrocephalus. J Neurosurg ; Accelerated progression of kaolin-induced hydrocephalus in aquaporindeficient mice.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; Aquaporin 4 changes in rat brain with severe hydrocephalus. Eur J Neurosci ; Quantification of cerebrospinal fluid transport across the cribriform plate into lymphatics in rats. Davis LE. Communicating hydrocephalus in newborn hamsters and cats following vaccinia virus infection. Experimental bacterial meningitis in rats: demonstration of hydrocephalus and meningeal enhancement by magnetic resonance imaging. Neurol Res ; Altered formation and bulk absorption of cerebrospinal fluid in FGFinduced hydrocephalus.

Am J Physiol ;R Moinuddin SM, Tada T. Study of cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics in TGF-beta 1 induced chronic hydrocephalic mice. Induction of communicating hydrocephalus in mice by intrathecal injection of human recombinant transforming growth factor-beta1. J Neuroimmunol ; Communicating hydrocephalus in rodents treated with beta, beta'-iminodipropionitrile IDPN.

Acta Neuropathol ; Genetic mapping of an insertional hydrocephalus-inducing mutation allelic to hy3. Mamm Genome ; Transgenic mice with a mutated collagen promoter display normal response during bleomycin-induced fibrosis and possess neurological abnormalities. J Cell Biochem ; Chronic hydrocephalus in rats and humans: white matter loss and behavior changes.

Pdf Annual Review Of Hydrocephalus Volume 6 1988

Ann Neurol ; Brain damage in neonatal rats following kaolin induction of hydrocephalus. Exp Neurol ; Communicating hydrocephalus in adult rats with kaolin obstruction of the basal cisterns or the cortical subarachnoid space. Progressive ventricular enlargement in the absence of high ventricular pressure in an experimental neonatal rat model.


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Child's Nerv Syst ; Experimental hydrocephalus produced by the subarachnoid infusion of silicone oil. Changes inperiventricular vasculature of rabbit brain following induction of hydrocephalus and after shunting. Silicone oil-induced hydrocephalus in the rabbit. Childs Nerv Syst ; The Dynamics of Acute Ventricular Obstruction. Am J Neuroradiol ; The ICP monitoring data were analysed following a standardised local protocol. A linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate the correlation between absence of SVP and simultaneous mean ICP. Introduction: Spontaneous and iatrogenic cerebrospinal fluid CSF leaks present with debilitating orthostatic headaches.

Despite the availability of multiple imaging techniques, a CSF leak can be difficult to identify in a significant proportion of patients. Moreover, recent studies have highlighted how lumbar puncture opening pressure can often be normal rather than low and this contributes to make the diagnosis of these conditions more complicated.

I1 Introduction

This study aims to describe the utility of continuous intracranial pressure ICP monitoring in the management of patients with suspected CSF leaks. Methods: This is a single centre retrospective study. Patients affected by orthostatic headache who underwent ICP monitoring for a suspected spontaneous or iatrogenic CSF leak were included. Conclusions: Continuous ICPM can be a useful additional method of investigation for patients affected by long-standing orthostatic headache and it should be considered when a suspected CFS pressure syndrome cannot be confirmed or excluded with more conventional investigations.

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Introduction: AQP4 present in ependymal cells, glia limiting membranes and pericapillary astrocytes foot processes; and AQP1 expressed in choroid plexus epithelial cells are believed to play an important role in the cerebrospinal fluid CSF production and may be involved in the pathophysiology of age-dependent hydrocephalus.

The finding that brain AQPs expression is regulated by low oxygen tension and ageing led us to analyze how hypoxia and elevated levels of cerebral AQPs may increase the CSF production that could be associated with the hydrocephalus onset. Choroid plexus, striatum, cortex and ependymal tissue were analyzed separately both for mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, parameters such as intraventricular pressure IVP , outflow rate of CSF and ventricular compliance measured by intra ventricular recordings in live animals, as well as total ventricular volume, measured by resonance magnetic images RMI , were estimated.

Results: Our data demonstrate that hypoxia participates in the origin of hydrocephalus by a process that depends on AQP4 as a main route for CSF movement. Purpose: Different CSF diversion procedures ventriculoperitoneal, ventriculoatrial, and lumboperitoneal shunting have been utilized for treatment of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

More recently, endoscopic third ventriculostomy ETV has been suggested as a reasonable alternative in some studies. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess overall rates of favorable outcomes and adverse events for each of these treatments.


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  6. An additional objective was to determine the outcomes and complication rates in relation to the type of valve utilized fixed versus programmable. Outcomes included the rate of patients who showed improvement in gait, cognition, and bladder function. Results: A total of 33 studies, encompassing patients, were identified. The use of programmable valves decreased the incidence of revision surgery and of subdural collections after surgery, potentially justifying the higher initial cost associated with these valves.

    Introduction: A promising imaging tool, both for differentiating iNPH from other neurodegenerative diseases and evaluating reversibility, is diffusion tensor imaging DTI.

    Conclusion: Significant ADC-changes in the frontal periventricular area between HI and patients indicate possible disease-related pathology. The almost significant changes pre-postop suggest reversibility of this pathology. This could be of interest to study further with the aim to improving diagnostics in iNPH.

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    Annual Review of Hydrocephalus

    Objective: Tap test with gait analysis is considered to be the Gold standard for testing patients with suspected iNPH. This is a professional mobile gait analysis tool, mainly utilized in rehabilitation facilities. Different parameters, such as the duration, frequency, stride length and number of steps, as well as gait, cycle variability, speed, the angle of the foot, ground clearance and more can be measured. Materials and methods: From April 1st to March 31st a number of 31 patients 20 male, 11 female underwent evaluation using the RehaGait. Results: The tool was easy to use.

    References

    It has several advantages and benefits. A reference data base allows assessment of the patients overall gait pattern [for example ataxtic cerebellar or parkinson gait].

    Alternative Treatment Hydrocephalus than Shunts

    Based on the Tap test and the gait analysis using the ReahGait we opted for shunt surgery in 21 out of 31 patients. It will allow new insights into prediction of shunt responsiveness in the future. Objective: It is a controversial issue whether it is of greater importance to implant vp-shunts with adjustable valves or adjustable gravitational units. The intention of this trial is to compare two groups of iNPH-patients in regard to valve adjustments, complications and clinical outcome.

    Results: From March to May 40 patients were included in the study. Conclusion: The results of this study reveal the supremacy of adjustable gravitational units over adjustable valves for patients with iNPH. We aim to identify features of concurrent PD and NPH, assess investigation methods and benefits of intervention.

    Medical records were studied for demographic information, symptom progression, and response to ventriculoperitoneal VP shunting. Chi square test was used to compare frequency of post-operative symptoms against a local database of NPH patients.

    I1 Introduction

    Benefits may be gained if this subset of patients do reach neurosurgical services and receive intervention, however expectations may need to be managed regarding cognitive impairment. This study aims to evaluate which interventions are used in patients with IIHWOP and the effect this has on their symptoms. Patients were selected by diagnosis from a local database of patients undergoing h ICP monitoring with no prior neurosurgical intervention. Clinical records were reviewed for records of symptoms, investigations and interventions. These differences were not statistically significant.

    VP shunting was associated with higher rates of further intervention than venous stenting, during mean follow up of Conclusions: Patients with IIH in the absence of papilloedema may benefit from surgical interventions and report an improvement in their symptoms. Venous stenting in particular was associated with improvements in symptoms and few further interventions needed.

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